6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Where we are?

4.25% of Kosovo’s territory is under protected natural areas

Only 4.25% of Kosovo’s territory is under protected natural areas, counting a surface of 46 437 /ha. Another 195 areas are proposed to be protected accounting for more than 50000 hectares. When such initiatives will take place, Kosovo will have protected almost 10% of its land area, which could help meet the target. Degradation of forests (over-harvesting of fuel wood, illegal hunting, spread of fire, illegal trade of species, un-controlled and illegal construction, sand and gravel mining in rivers and mountains) has a negative effect on protection of biodiversity, extinction of species and habitat loss especially in Dragash region which contains most of the rare and endangered species in Kosovo. There are 27 taxa of rare and endangered plant species, and 10 taxa of protected species of rare and endangered mammals. If no adequate institutional attention is given to the protection of these species, Kosovo runs the risk to allow some of them to go extinct.

Where does Kosovo stand?

Around 73% of the population is supplied by the water management system. Of the total quantity of water produced, only 50% is sold, the other 50% is either lost from the system through leakages (technical losses) or not billed (commercial losses). Around 27% of the population uses other water supplies, mostly household wells. The quality of water from wells is not controlled or disinfected; users are prone to toxics, infections and diseases, also because there is no wastewater treatment in Kosovo. Sewerage is dispersed into open areas. The first urban wastewater treatment plant has been constructed in Skenderaj but it is not fully operational. Around 71% of Albanians, 69% of Serbs and 80% of other minorities are connected to sewerage systems.  There is no system for monitoring sewage discharge and treatment of municipal wastewater is virtually non-existent.

Only a few Kosovo Force (KFOR) camps and the hospital complex of Pristina have biological treatment plants. The environmental situation in Kosovo requires extensive research, analysis and evaluation; the outcomes require new and reliable data and lack of those, makes it difficult to determine the progress on the field.  Overall environmental situation in Kosovo continues to be worrisome, with some observations from the field which show no significant improvement today. Contamination of water bodies by discharging wastewater to the rivers is continuing, as there is almost no wastewater treatment plant. Pollution of air due to operation of power plants, traffic and other industrial facilities remains the same. Kosovo environmental legislation is building up and it is being harmonized with the EU legislation. However, enforcement and implementation of laws is still weak.

Targets for MDG6
  1. Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
    • HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years
    • Condom use at last high-risk sex
    • Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS
    • Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14 years
  2. Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it
    • Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs